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All art is but imitation of nature.

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3. 共享資源 Goodies

3.1 Free Reference Guides for Video Production 


3.1 Free Reference Guide for Video Production

3.1.1 Multimedia Freeware 多媒體自由或共享軟件
3.1.2 Multimedia File format 多媒體檔案
3.1.3 Codec and Compression Technology 編碼、解碼及壓縮技術
3.1.4 Home Video Production Process 影音製作程序
3.1.5 Glossary of AV Technology 技術名詞

3.2 Animated Gif Icon

3.1.5 Glossary

3D Audio
A technique for giving more depth to traditional stereo sound. Typically, 3-D sound, or 3-D audio, is produced by placing a device in a room with stereo speakers. The device dynamically analyzes the sound coming from the speakers and sends feedback to the sound system so that it can readjust the sound to give the impression that the speakers are further apart.
3D Software
The category of software that represents 3-dimensional objects on a computer. This includes CAD/CAM, computer games, and animation packages.
Short for Advanced Audio Coding, one of the audio compression formats defined by the MPEG-2 standard. AAC is sometimes referred to as MPEG-2 NBC (not backwards compatible) because it is not compatible with the MPEG-1 coding scheme.
Analog to Digital Converter. A device that converts an analog signal, such as a voice signal, to digital data for transport across digital circuits.
Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation ADCPM is a form of PCM that produces the digital signal at a lower bit rate than does standard PCM. ADPCM records only the difference between samples rather than sampling the entire waveform. ADPCM can reduce the resultant signal's digital bandwidth by half that of PCM.
In computer graphics, the process by which smooth curves and other lines become jagged because the resolution of the graphics device or file is not high enough to represent a smooth curve. Smoothing and anti aliasing techniques can reduce the effect of aliasing.
Alpha Channel
In graphic, a portion of each pixel’s data that is reserved for transparency information. 32-bit graphics systems contain four channels -- three 8-bit channels for red, green, and blue (RGB) and one 8-bit alpha channel.
An electronic device or electrical circuit that is used to boost (amplify) the power, voltage or current of an applied signal
An analog or analogue signal is any variable signal continuous in both time and amplitude. It differs from a digital signal in that small fluctuations in the signal are meaningful. Waveforms, with valleys and ridges, referring to the natural form of sound/audio. To store/playback on a computer, analog data is converted to digital data. An adjectives applied to data which can have arbitrary real values and can therefore represent continously varying signals and phenomena such as brightness.
Often, an animatic or story reel is made after the soundtrack is created, but before full animation begins. An animatic typically consists of pictures of the storyboard synchronized with the soundtrack
A simulation of movement created by displaying a series of pictures, or frames. Cartoons on television is one example of animation. Animation on computers is one of the chief ingredients of multimedia presentations. There are many software applications that enable you to create animations that you can display on a computer monitor.
Animation Compressor
A lossless QuickTime codec. The Animation Compressor employs a compression algorithm developed by Apple. This technique is best suited to animation and computer-generated video content. The Animation Compressor can be used to compress sequences of screen images
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Anti aliasing
Process used to remove jagged edges in computerized graphics. The blurring of hard edges to create the appearance of smoothness. Most commonly used with respect to graphics, especially text.
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Audio Frequency
Abbreviated as AF, audio frequency represent the range of signals that are audible to the human ear. The range of audio frequencies is usually considered to be in the region between 20 and 20,000 hertz
Multimedia Glossary
Audio Sampling rate
The audio sampling rate is number of samples per second that are used to digitize a particular sound. Most digital video (DV) cameras can record at several audio sampling rates, where higher rates produce better results
Audio Scrubbing
The process of moving within an audio file or tape to locate a particular section. The term originally comes from the days of reel-to-reel players, when rocking a reel would give the impression of scrubbing tape across the head. Many audio scrub tools today allow the user to drag a cursor across the wave form to audition different sections of an audio file.
A bit is a "binary digit," that is, a single value that makes up a binary number. A bit can be either 1 or 0.
A representation, consisting of rows and columns of dots, of a graphic image in computer memory. The value of each dot (whether it is filled in or not) is stored in one or more bits of data. For simple monochromes images, one bit is sufficient to represent each dot, but for colors and shades of gray, each dot requires more than one bit of data. The more bits used to represent a dot, the more colors and shades of gray that can be represented.
Short for channel access method, a protocol for how data is transmitted in the bottom two layers of the OSI model. CAMs describe how networking systems put data on the network media, how low-level errors are dealt with, and how the network polices itself. Polling, contention and token passing are three examples of CAMs
generally a small portable device that can record live video and usually audio as well. Camcorders support playback of the captured video through consumer electronics such as a VCR, TV or computer
Chroma key
In graphics and digital video editing programs, chroma key is a function that renders a specific color in a layer transparent. In television and film, it's the technique of using a monochromatic background for the purpose of replacing it with a different image or scene in post-production. In the film industry it's called blue screen.
Cinepak is a video codec developed by SuperMatch, a division of SuperMac Technologies , and released in 1992 as part of Apple Computer's Quicktime video suite. It was designed to encode 320x240 resolution video at 1x (150 kbyte/s) CD-ROM transfer rates. The codec was ported to the Windows platform in 1993. It was also used on first-generation CD-ROM game consoles, such as the Atari Jaguar CD , Sega CD , Sega Saturn, and 3DO .
Short for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and blacK A color model used when working with print-based images that describes colors as mixtures of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black ink. CMYK is contrasted to the RGB (Red, Green, Blue) color model, which is used when working with images intended for electronic presentation, such as on computer monitors, televisions, and LCD screens
Co mpressor and dec ompressor. An algorithm to reduce the size of audio or video data General purpose multimedia file formats, such as AVI and Quicktime rely on external codecs to do the compression and decompression -- the algorithms are not part of the file format. This means that if you compress a file with a given codec, the user viewing the file must have the same codec installed to decompress it (and thus see/hear it)
Multimedia Glossary
Color depth
The number of distinct colors that can be represented by a piece of hardware or software. Color depth is sometimes referred to as bit depth because it is directly related to the number of bits used for each pixel. A 24-bit video adapter, for example, has a color depth of 2 to the 24th power (about 16.7 million) colors. One would say that its color depth is 24 bits.
component video
Component video is a video signal that has been split into two or more components. In popular use, it refers to a type of analog video information that is transmitted or stored as three separate signals. Component video can be contrasted with composite video (such as NTSC or PAL ) in which all the video information is combined into a single line level signal. Increasingly, analog component video connections are being superseded by digital component video connections based on the DVI and HDMI standards.
composite video
Composite video is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier . It is usually in a standard format such as NTSC , PAL , or SECAM . It is a composite of three source signals called Y, U and V (together referred to as YUV ) with sync pulses. Y represents the brightness or luminance of the picture and includes synchronizing pulses, so that by itself it could be displayed as a monochrome picture. U and V between them carry the colour information.
(file) - Process for reducing file size, often called "zipping" or "archiving". The resulting, compressed file can be from a single, large file or can contain several files that have been squeezed into a single file. The many-to-one compression makes file group identification, copying, and transporting faster and easier. (video) - Process which reduces the number of bytes required to store/transmit digital video . Typical schemes involve comparing frames and coding-out, or eliminating, inter- frame and intra -frame redundancies. The compression may be done by software, hardware or a combination of the two. On playback, the data is decompressed.
In electronics , a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A ) is a device for converting a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal ( current , voltage or electric charge ). Digital-to-analog converters are interfaces between the abstract digital world and analog real life. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) performs the reverse operation. A DAC usually only deals with pulse-code modulation (PCM)-encoded signals. The job of converting various compressed forms of signals into PCM is left to codecs .
Digital audio
Refers to the reproduction and transmission of sound stored in a digital format. This includes CDs as well as any sound files stored on a computer. In contrast, the telephone system (but not ISDN ) is based on an analog representation of sound. In sound recording and reproduction systems, digital audio refers to a digital representation of the audio waveform for processing, storage or transmission. When analog sound waves are stored in digital form, each digital audio file can be decomposed into a series of samples.
Digital Video
Refers to the capturing, manipulation and storage of video in digital formats. A digital video (DV) camcorder, for example, is a video camera that captures and stores images on a digital medium such as a DAT.
Process of converting video or audio signals, normally in waveform, into 1's and 0's. This digital format (actually patterns of on 's/high-voltage (1's) and off 's/low voltage (0's) rather than digits) can be processed by a computer. Analog-digital comparison
Blending colors to modify colors or produce new ones.Creating the illusion of new colors and shades by varying the pattern of dots. Newspaper photographs, for example, are dithered. If you look closely, you can see that different shades of gray are produced by varying the patterns of black and white dots. There are no gray dots at all. The more dither patterns that a device or program supports, the more shades of gray it can represent. In printing , dithering is usually called halftoning, and shades of gray are called halftones.
Dolby Digital
A standard for high-quality digital audio that is used for the sound portion of video stored in digital format, especially videos stored on DVD-ROMs. Dolby Digital delivers 6 channels in the 5.1 configuration: left, right, and center screen channels, separate left and right sounds, and a subwoofer channel. This is sometimes called surround sound or 3D sound.
Dolby Surround
Dolby Surround is the consumer version of the original Dolby multichannel analog film sound format — Dolby analog and Dolby SR (Spectral Recording). When a Dolby Surround soundtrack is produced, four channels of audio information (Left, Center, Right and Mono) surround are matrix-encoded onto two audio tracks.
Multimedia Glossary
Dot Pitch
The distance between the pixels on the monitor. The smaller the distance, i.e. the denser the pixels, the clearer the picture resolution.
Short for Dots Per Inch. DPI is a measure of image resolution. DPI is a count of the number of pixels (in a displayed image or scanner) or dots of ink (in a printed image or printer) per linear inch. The horizontal (h) and vertical (v) DPI of an image or device can be different. If you know an image's size and resolution, you can determine the DPIs.:
Dual layer
Dual layer refers to a DVD recording technology that provides users with 8.5GB of recording space (as opposed to 4.7GB of space) on a standard DVD+R discs). The additional recording space is the direct result of dual layer technology
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Digital Video Disk or Digital Versatile Disk- An emerging medium for storing large amounts of digital data, most notably movies encoded using MPEG-2 compression (a CODEC designed especially for use with DVDs). DVDs can hold several gigabytes on a single disc. Most CDs by contrast can only hold 600 megabytes each.
Abbreviated as EQ, in audio processing, equalization is the process of modifying the frequency of a sound. Equalization is most commonly used to correct signals that sound unnatural. For example, if a sound was recorded in a room that accentuates high frequencies, an equalizer can reduce those frequencies to a more normal level
Short for Free Lossless Audio Codec, a free codec developed by and used to compress audio files. FLAC is similar to MP3 except that it is lossless (the decoded audio is identical to what went into the encoder and is verified with a 16-bit CRC).
A design for a set of characters. A font is the combination of typeface and other qualities, such as size, pitch, and spacing. For example, Times Roman is a typeface that defines the shape of each character. Within Times Roman, however, there are many fonts to choose from -- different sizes, italic, bold, and so on. (The term font is often used incorrectly as a synonym for typeface .) .
A word coined by Benoit Mandelbrot in 1975 to describe shapes that are "self-similar" -- that is, shapes that look the same at different magnifications.
Frame rate
A way of specifying the speed of playback of a sequence of video, film or animation. In motion pictures, television, and in computer video displays, the frame rate is the number of frames or images that are projected or displayed per second. Frame rates are used in synchronizing audio and pictures, whether film, television, or video. Frame rate is measured in frames per second (fps).
Frequency is the number of times per second that a wave swings back and forth in a cycle from its beginning point to its ending point. It is the number of wave crests or cycles that passes a fixed point during a particular period of time.
Refers to any computer device or program that makes a computer capable of displaying and manipulating pictures. The term also refers to the images themselves. For example, laser printers and plotters are graphics devices because they permit the computer to output pictures. A graphics monitor is a display monitor that can display pictures. A graphics board (or graphics card) is a printed circuit board that, when installed in a computer, permits the computer to display pictures.
Gray scalling
The use of many shades of gray to represent an image. Continuous-tone images, such as black-and-white photographs, use an almost unlimited number of shades of gray. Conventiona computer hardware and software, however, can only represent a limited number of shades of gray (typically 16 or 256). Gray-scaling is the process of converting a continuous-tone image to an image that a computer can manipulate.
A hypertext programming environment for the Macintosh introduced by Apple in 1987. The HyperCard model consists of cards, and collections of cards, called stacks. You can connect the cards in various ways, and leaf through them the way you would with a set of Rolodex cards. In addition to data, each card can contain graphics and buttons that trigger other events, such as sound or video.
An element in an electronic document that links to another place in the same document or to an entirely different document. Typically, you click on the hyperlink to follow the link. Hyperlinks are the most essential ingredient of all hypertext systems, including the World Wide Web.
Hypermedia takes hypertext to another level, and includes images, sounds, and video with links that can be selected and viewed.
A special type of database system, invented by Ted Nelson in the 1960s, in which objects (text, pictures, music, programs, and so on) can be creatively linked to each other. When you select an object, you can see all the other objects that are linked to it. You can move from one object to another even though they might have very different forms.
Interpolation (sometimes called resampling) is an imaging method to increase (or decrease) the number of pixels in a digital image. Some digital cameras use interpolation to produce a larger image than the sensor captured or to create digital zoom . Virtually all image editing software support one or more methods of interpolation. How smoothly images are enlarged without introducing jaggies depends on the sophistication of the algorithm.
Digital Photography Review
Stairlike lines that appear where there should be smooth straight lines or curves. Jaggies can occur for a variety of reasons, the most common being that the output device (display monitor or printer) does not have enough resolution to portray a smooth line
In video compression technology, another name for an I-frame.
Layout begins after the designs are completed and approved by the director. The layout process is the same as the blocking out of shots by a cinematographer on a live-action film. It is here that the background layout artists determine the camera angles, camera paths, lighting, and shading of the scene
Multimedia Glossary
Lossless Compression
A reversible compression technique which permits the original values of the data (before compression) to be recovered exactly.
Lossy Compression
Data compression which cannot be exactly reversed, so that the decompression operation restores only an approximation to the original data
Normal mapping is usually found in two varieties: object-space and tangent-space normal mapping. They differ in coordinate systems in which the normals are measured and stored.
MLP Lossless
MLP Lossless is a licensed trademark of Dolby Laboratories. It's the core technology of Advanced Resolution multichannel and stereo DVD-Audio. MLP Lossless enables producers to encode up to six channels of 96 kHz/24 bit audio, or two channels of 192 kHz/24 bit audio onto a DVD-Audio disc, resulting in playback that's bit-for-bit identical to the studio master. MLP Lossless has been accepted as the standard in the high-definition DVD-Video (HD DVD) format.
In 3D computer graphics , a 3D model is a mathematical representation of a three-dimensional object. It can be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in a computer simulation of physical phenomena.
Commonly called mono sound, mono, or non-stereo sound , this early sound system used a single channel of audio for sound output. In monophonic sound systems, the signal sent to the sound system encodes one single stream of sound and it usually uses just one speaker . Monophonic sound is the most basic format of sound output.
Monophonic Sound
Commonly called mono sound, mono, or non-stereo sound, this early sound system used a single channel of audio for sound output. In monophonic sound systems, the signal sent to the sound system encodes one single stream of sound and it usually uses just one speaker. Monophonic sound is the most basic format of sound output
Short for metamorphosing , morphing refers to an animation technique in which one image is gradually turned into another. Many advanced animation programs support some type of morphing feature.
Motion vector
In video editing motion vectors are used to compress video by storing the changes to an image from one frame to the next. The process is a bi-dimensional pointer that communicates to the decoder how much left or right and up or down, the prediction macroblock is located from the position of the macroblock in the reference frame or field.
MP3 Player
A portable consumer electronic device that allows you to store and plays music files in MP3 format. MP3 players are small handheld devices and often use flash memory for storing MP3 files. While frequently called an MP3 player, it fits under the broader category of digital audio players and often an MP3 players can use other file types such as Windows Media Audio (WMA)
Multimedia (Lat. Multum + Medium) is media that uses multiple forms of information content and information processing.The use of computers to present text, graphics, video, animation, and sound in an integrated way. Long touted as the future revolution in computing, multimedia applications were, until the mid-90s, uncommon due to the expensive hardware required.
(N ational T V S tandards C ommittee) The committee that developed the television standards for the U.S, which are also used in Canada, Japan, South Korea and several Central and South American countries. Both the committee and the standard are called "NTSC".
Nyquist Effect
Knowing the type of audio to be sampled and the intended purpose of the audio allows for a reasonable choice of sampling rate. In deciding upon a sampling rate one must be aware of the difference between playback rate and capturing (sampling), rate. These two rates are not the same. In fact the sampling rate must be two times the playback rate.
Multimedia Glossary
Onion Skinning
Onion skinning is a 2D computer graphics term for a technique used in creating animated cartoons and editing movies to see several frames at once. This way, the animator or editor can take decisions on how to create or change an image based on the previous image in the sequence. In traditional cartoon animation, the individual frames of a movie were initially drawn on paper over a light source. The animators (mostly inbetweeners ) would put the previous and next drawings exactly beneath the working drawing, so that they could draw the 'inbetween' to give a smooth motion
Multimedia Glossary
PAL , short for Phase Alternating Line , is a colour encoding system used in broadcast television systems in large parts of the world. Other common analogue television systems are SECAM and NTSC . PAL was developed by Walter Bruch at Telefunken in Germany . The format was first unveiled in 1963 , with the first broadcasts beginning in the United Kingdom and Germany in 1967.
Multimedia Glossary
PICT is a file format that was developed by Apple Computer in 1984 as the native format for Macintosh graphics. PICT files are encoded in QuickDraw commands. The PICT format is a meta-format that can be used for both bitmap images and vector images.
PNG ( Portable Network Graphics ) is a bitmap image format that employs lossless data compression . PNG was created to improve and replace the GIF format, as an image-file format not requiring a patent license. PNG is pronounced " ping " ( /p??/ in IPA ), but can be spoken "P-N-G" to avoid confusion with network tool ping . PNG is supported by the libpng reference library (platform-independent), with C functions for handling PNG images.
Type 1 outline fonts (also known as Postscript, Postscript Type 1, PS1, T1 or Adobe PostcScript Type 3 or PS3, T3 or Adobe Type 3) were developed by Adobe for professional digital typesetting.
quadraphonic sound
Quadraphonic sound uses four channels to output sound; right front, left front, right rear, and left rear. The goal of a quadraphonic sound system is to reproduce sounds in both the front and back of the listener, which simulates 360-degree sound. Quadraphonic sound became the more common and popular choice in the late 1950s to early 1960s versus Four Channel Discrete which was also available during that time
Reflection mapping
In computer graphics , reflection mapping is an efficient method of simulating a complex mirroring surface by means of a precomputed texture image. The texture is used to store the image of the environment surrounding the rendered object. There are several ways of storing the surrounding environment; the most common ones are the Standard Environment Mapping in which a single texture contains the image of the surrounding as reflected on a mirror ball, or the Cubic Environment Mapping in which the envirornment is unfolded onto the six faces of a cube and stored therefore as six square textures.
Rendering is the process of generating an image from a model, by means of computer programs. The model is a description of three dimensional objects in a strictly defined language or data structure. It would contain geometry, viewpoint, texture and lighting information. The image is a digital image or raster graphics image . The term may be by analogy with an "artist's rendering" of a scene. 'Rendering' is also used to describe the process of calculating effects in a video editing file to produce final video output.
Refers to the sharpness and clarity of an image. The term is most often used to describe monitors , printers , and bit-mapped graphic images. In the case of dot-matrix and laser printers , the resolution indicates the number of dots per inch . For example, a 300-dpi (dots per inch) printer is one that is capable of printing 300 distinct dots in a line 1 inch long. This means it can print 90,000 dots per square inch.
Digital Photography Review
S Video
Short for S uper- Video , a technology for transmitting video signals over a cable by dividing the video information into two separate signals: one for color ( chrominance ), and the other for brightness ( luminance ). When sent to a television, this produces sharper images than composite video, where the video information is transmitted as a single signal over one wire. This is because televisions are designed to display separate Luminance (Y) and Chrominance (C) signals. (The terms Y/C video and S-Video are the same.)
When coverting video or audio waves to digital format, digitizing software picks out points along the wave and records or "snapshots" these points. These "snapshots" can then be replayed in much the same way that motion pictures are recreated from the individual frames. The higher the sampling rate, i.e. the more snapshots/points, per unit time, the more accurate the computer's representation of the wave.
In signal processing, the recording of values at discrete intervals in time. Part of the process of digitization.
Sampling rate
A Sampling rate must be chosen that will preserve at least the full range of audible frequencies, if high-fidelity reproduction is desired. if the limit of hearing is taken to be 20 kHz, a minimum rate of 40 kHz is required by the Sampling Theorem.
Sans Serif
Pronounced SAN-SERR-if. A category of typefaces that do not use serifs, small lines at the ends of characters. Popular sans serif fonts include Helvetica, Avant Garde, Arial, and Geneva . Serif fonts include Times Roman, Courier, New Century Schoolbook, and Palatino.
In typography , serifs are non-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. A font that has serifs is called a serif font (or seriffed font ). A font without serifs is called sans-serif , from the French sans ="without". Some typography sources refer to sans serif typefaces as " grotesque " (in German "grotesk") or " gothic ", and serif types as " roman ". These terms are no longer commonly used however, except in specific font names.
Multimedia Glossary
A simulation is an imitation of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. The act of simulating something generally entails representing certain key characteristics or behaviors of a selected physical or abstract system.
Sound card
An expansion board that enables a computer to manipulate and output sounds. Sound cards are necessary for nearly all CD-ROMs and have become commonplace on modern personal computers. Sound cards enable the computer to output sound through speakers connected to the board, to record sound input from a microphone connected to the computer, and manipulate sound stored on a disk.
An electro-acoustic transducer that converts electrical signals into sounds loud enough to be heard at a distance. Synonymous with loudspeaker.
Commonly called stereo sound or just stereo , stereophonic sound divides sounds across two channels (recorded on two separate sources) then the recorded sounds are mixed so that some elements are channeled to the left and others to the right. Stereophonic sound is generally considered the best sound technology of the 1950 and early 1960's.
Stereophonic sound
Commonly called stereo sound or just stereo, stereophonic sound divides sounds across two channels (recorded on two separate sources) then the recorded sounds are mixed so that some elements are channeled to the left and others to the right. Stereophonic sound is generally considered the best sound technology of the 1950 and early 1960's
still frame
A single captured frame within a video file. Video editing programs will provide options for authors to grab a single image (still frame) from within a video clip. These can be used like any still photo.
Traditionally-animated productions, just like other forms of animation, usually begin life as a storyboard, which is a script of sorts written with images as well as words, similar to a giant comic trip, The images allow the animation team to plan the flow of the plot and the composition of the imagery. The storyboard artists will have regular meetings with the director, and may have to redraw or "re-board" a sequence many times before it meets final approval.
A technique for transferring data such that it can be processed as a steady and continuous stream. Streaming technologies are becoming increasingly important with the growth of the Internet because most users do not have fast enough access to download large multimedia files quickly. With streaming, the client browser or plug-in can start displaying the data before the entire file has been transmitted.
Surround sound
Surround sound is a term used to describe a type of audio output in which the sound appears to "surround the listener" by 360 degrees. Surround sound systems use three or more channels and speakers in front and behind the listener to create a surrounding envelope of sound and directional audio sources.
Texture mapping
Texture mapping is a method, pioneered by Edwin Catmull , of adding detail, surface texture , or colour to a computer-generated graphic or 3D model . A texture map is applied (mapped) to the surface of a shape. This process is akin to applying gift wrapping paper to a plain white box. In the example at right, a texture map of the Earth's coloration is applied to a sphere to create the illusion of color detail that would take very many additional polygons to realise otherwise. This kind of coloration is the most common application of texture mapping.
Short for in-betweening, the process of generating intermediate frames between two images to give the appearance that the first image evolves smoothly into the second image. Tweening is a key process in all types of animation, including computer animation. Sophisticated animation software enables you to identify specific objects in an image and define how they should move and change during the tweening proces
In typography , a typeface is a coordinated set of glyphs designed with stylistic unity. A typeface usually comprises an alphabet of letters, numerals , and punctuation marks; it may also include ideograms and symbols , or consist entirely of them, for example, mathematical or map-making symbols.
Refers to recording, manipulating, and displaying moving images, especially in a format that can be presented on a television.
virtual reality
An artificial environment created with computer hardware and software and presented to the user in such a way that it appears and feels like a real environment. To "enter" a virtual reality, a user dons special gloves, earphones, and goggles, all of which receive their input from the computer system
Digital Photography Review
A commonly used term in the telecommunications industry. Waveform is a graphical representation of a signal as a plot of amplitude versus time, i.e., the shape of a wave

Digital Video File Format Comparision

640x480² 640x480² 320x240² 720x480
Sorenson, Cinepak, MPEG4 ...
Video bitrate
MP1, MP2, AC3, DTS, PCM MP1, MP2, AC3, DTS, PCM MP3, WMA, OGG, AAC, AC3 QDesign Music, MP3 ... RM DV
Audio bitrate
Min/74min CD
10-20min ~4min
60-180min 30-180
7-18hrs 3-18hrs 14-35hrs 20min
13-30hrs 6-30hrs 25-65hrs 37min
DVD Player Compatibility
Great Good Excellent None Few None None None
Computer CPU Usage
Low High Very High Super high Very High High Low High
Good Great* Excellent* Superb* Great* Great* Decent* Excellent
kbps = thousand bits per second
Mbps = million bits per second
² approximately resolution, it can be higher or lower
~ approximately bitrate, it can be higher or lower
ª DVD with lower video quality, similiar to VCD/SVCD video quality
* the video quality depends on the bitrate and the video resolution, higher bitrate and higher resolution generally means better video quality but bigger file size

Credit 鳴謝

Credit and thanks are hereby granted to all those vendors, their colleagues and collaborating voluntary programmers who contribute their works to the general public for free.


Our Belief in Sharing

After releasing our stock photos for public sharing for more than 1 year, we consolidate our belief in our move to embrace free licence. Last year we released our calendar under creative common licence but we decided to releasae our works under our own free licence for some considerations. Now it's time for us to tell the public our thinking.

Someone claim that the majority of people may enjoy wealth generated from their creative work. So our legislators  have drafted and passed a series of law for the protection of intellectual property. However, under the copyright ordinance, we cannot be sure if a piece of work is allowed to be copied, shared, distributed, reproduced or modified without a complete knowledge about the details of license even though we are willing to pay for the use of it. For the peace of mind, we must create everything from the very beginning together with a thorough prior art search confirming that there is no similar wrok in the world.  However, the new ordinances have not helped too much in protecting our creative works. Customers, including government departments, are expecting "free  demo design service" early  in the stage of tendering quotation for jobs involving the elements of creation.    

The problem is not limited to this. Nobody is able to tell if his idea would coinside with someone living and working in elsewhere of the world. This intrinsic defect of the so-called intellectual property have given rise to the overwhelming rent seeking activities of a group of professional litigators who take advantages from champerty and maintenance. These brave new ordinances, to some extent, have legalized their legal extortion from innocent people. In Hong Kong, their victims are mainly SMEs, especially small retailers or service providers. It's hard for outsiders to imagine how and why a lawful and well disciplined retailer keep receiveing legal letters from prominent law firms representing prominent content providers or trademark owners claiming hundred thousands dollars for the infringement of copyright just for selling stationery of dollars and cents only because it  is deemed by these smart heads to be "too similar" to what they possess. In Western countries, even the wealthy gigantic corporates are their targets. 

Then some people stood up and vowed that this "permission culture" was not the thing they want but that they valued the joy of sharing and recognition of their idea more than money. They realize that whether  or not a piece of work can generate profit relies on the popularity but not the promise of law. In software industry, some vendors introduce the idea of "SAAS" (software as a service) and support the open source movement. In creative industry, some artists start to release their work free of charge to the public for gaining the  popularity and make their money from the provision of service. Thus a number of free license like "creative common", "copyleft", "wiki-common" or "GPL" were created to get around the restriction of copyright which is granted to the creator automatically as a natural right by most of the prevailing legal systems in our world. To the astonishment of a lot of ordinary people, in just a few years, more and more authors have joined the camp of "free culture" and released their work under various kinds of free license.  They contribute their effort in building a more beautiful world. 

However, do not confuss piracy with "free culture".  Advocates of free culture only share with others their own creation but not pirated property from others. Actually, they respect the right of the author of all intellectual property. Whether or not to release their work under free license remain their own choice. 

This point is important when using our hyper-links to these 3rd party web site providing free resources to artists all over the world. We respect the will and the right of the author of all intellectual properties. When we provide the information and hyper-link of these web-sites, we believe that their activities and content are lawful and ethical. Hence, before you visit those webs, please read our disclaimer once again. If you find any abuse or obsession, please email to "".

Taking the most pragmatic point of view, the action of releasing free works to the public may be regarded as a "free demo service" like what a contractor provides in  tendering a quotation for a project. Nevertheless, as a humble person, we should believe in the pure intention of some people who only demand for  echo in return for what they have shared with  the world.

- 11/12/2008